Renal Care / Urology
Urology is the medical science dealing with the diseases and disorders of the male and female urinary tract system. Urology encompasses diseases of the kidneys, urinary bladders, ureters, urethra, adrenal glands as well as the reproductive organs like the penis, testes and prostate. Because the urinary and the reproductive tracts are closely related, the disorders of one generally affect the other. Urology combines the management of medical (i.e., non-surgical) conditions such asurinary tract infections and benign prostatic hyperplasia, with the management of surgical conditions such as bladder or prostate cancer, kidney stones, congenital abnormalities, traumatic injury, and stress incontinence.
Renal Replacement therapy
Renal replacement therapy is a term used to encompass life-supporting treatments for renal failure. It includes:
- peritoneal dialysis,
- hemofiltration and
- renal transplantation.
The function of the kidneys is to purify the blood by filtering the waste, toxins and excess fluid from the blood. If the kidneys don’t work properly, too much of fluid builds up in the body tissues causing swelling, called edema. If the kidneys lose their functions completely, then a life saving treatment is required to purify the blood and remove the toxins from it. In medicine dialysis is a process for removing waste and excess water from the blood, and is used primarily as an artificial replacement for lost kidney function in people with renal failure.
- Haemodialysis – The blood is circulated via an external dialysis machine, which purifies the blood, and then supplied back to the body.
- Peritoneal Dialysis – Blood is fitered inside the body itself, using a cleaning solution and the peritoneal membrane.
Kidney transplantation or renal transplantation is the organ transplant of a kidney into a patient with end-stage renal disease. Kidney transplantation is typically classified as deceased-donor (formerly known as cadaveric) or living-donor transplantation depending on the source of the donor organ. The kidney transplant procedure have a few prerequisites so as to minimize the chances or organ rejection by the recepient’s body. These include matching the tissue type and the blood type of the donor with the recepient, which should match to facilitate a successful kidney transplant.
A kidney stone, also known as a renal calculus is a solid concretion or crystal aggregation formed in the kidneys from dietary minerals in the urine. The crystals generally exit the kidney along with the urine, but sometimes the crysal don’t leave the kidney and may accumulate over the period of time and form a kidney stone. Small kidney stones (<10 mm) pass on their own via the urinal tract, but comparatively larger stones need medical procedures to be removed. Initial symptoms of kidney stones include severe pain in the kidneys or the back of the abdomen. An ultrasound can confirm the presence of a renal calculus.
Gall Bladder stones
A gallstone is a crystalline concretion formed within the gallbladder by accretion of bile components. These calculi are formed in the gallbladder but may distally pass into other parts of the biliary tract such as the cystic duct, common bile duct, pancreatic duct, or the ampulla of Vater. Most of the gallbladder stones form due to the cholestrol and the pigments in bile, which forms hard particles. Gallbladder stones may not cause any pain for a long period of time. Initial symptoms include nausea, vomiting and back pain. Gallstones may vary in sizes ranging from the size of a small gram to the size of a golf ball. The gallbladder may contain a single large stone or many smaller ones. Pseudoliths, sometimes referred to as sludge, are thick secretions that may be present within the gallbladder, either alone or in conjunction with fully formed gallstones.
Prostate gland is a tubuloalveolar exocrine gland of the male reproductive system. A healthy prostate is no larger than the size of a walnut and weighs about 11 grams. But when the prostrate is enlarged, large and discrete modules form in the periurethral region of the prostrate. When these modules become large, they compress Benign prostatic hyperplasia also called benign enlargement of the prostate , involves hyperplasia of prostatic stromal and epithelial cells, resulting in the formation of large, fairly discrete nodules in the periurethral region of the prostate.
Prostate cancer is a form of cancer that develops in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system. Most prostate cancers are slow growing, however, there are cases of aggressive prostate cancers. The prostate cancer may spread to other parts of the body, particularly the lymph nodes. Prostate cancer can lead to a lot of problems in the male urinary tract or the reproductive system. Prostate cancer may cause pain or obstruction in urinating, sometimes the patient is not able to pass urine at all. A lot of sexual problems in males like erectile dysfunctioning and sexual intercourse.
Urinary Bladder Cancer
Bladder cancer is any of several types of malignancy arising from the epithelial lining of the urinary bladder. Rarely the bladder is involved by non-epithelial cancers, such as lymphoma or sarcoma. It’s characterized by an abnormal cell growth in the urinary bladder, which is a hollow organ to store urine and is located in the pelvis. The bladder cancer can spread to the lymph nodes, or other organs of the body like the lungs and the liver. The symptoms may include blood in the urine, very frequent urination, obstruction in urination or painful urination. The bladder cancer can be treated effectively by chemotherapy and radiation.
Hernia refers to the protrusion of an organ through the wall of the cavity that contains it. The most common form of hernia develops in the abdomen where a visible lump is seen. The causes of hernia are mostly related to mechanical causes like lifting heavy weight with an incorrect posture, very hard coughing bouts etc. Hernia repair refers to a surgical operation for the correction of a hernia (a bulging of internal organs or tissues through a defect in the wall of a body cavity). Hernias can occur in many places, including the abdomen, groin, diaphragm, brain, and at the site of a previous operation.
Appendicitis is a condition characterized by inflammation of the appendix. It is classified as a medical emergency and many cases requires removal of the inflamed appendix, either by laparotomy or laparoscopy. The appendix needs to be surgically removed because of the high mortality associated with the rupture of the appendix. It is characterized by a severe pain in the abdomen, vomiting and fever, and may lead to complications like peritonisis and sepsis if left untreated.
Haemorrhoids are vascular structures in the anal canal which help with stool control. They become pathological or piles when swollen or inflamed. In their physiological state, they act as a cushion composed of arterio-venous channels and connective tissue. Haemorrhoids could be classified as internal or external haemorrhoids. In case the veins inside of the anal canal swell, they are referred to as the internal haemorrhoids or if the veins swell near the opening of the anus, they are called external haemorrhoids. The possible causes of the heamorrhoids can be putting excessive strain to push out the stool which cause the veins in the anal tissue to stretch and swell. Constipation also increase the pressure on the veins and cuase haemorrhoids.