Retinal Detachment Surgery: Buckling surgery/ Pneumatic Retinopexy
Retinal detachment is a disorder of the eye in which the retina peels away from its underlying layer of support tissue. Initial detachment may be localized, but without rapid treatment the entire retina may detach, leading to vision loss and blindness. Almost all the retinal detachments can be repaired with a scleral buckle surgery or a Pneumatic retinopexy. Pneumatic retinopexy is an effective surgery for certain types of retinal detachments. It uses a bubble of gas to push the retina against the wall of the eye, allowing fluid to be pumped out from beneath the retina. It is usually an outpatient procedure done with local anesthesia.
The term cyrotherapy refers to the general use of low temperatures in medical treatments. Ocular cryotherapy is the therapeutic use of cold temperatures to treat disorders of the lids or eyes. Retinal cryotherapy, is a procedure that uses intense cold to induce a chorioretinal scar and to destroy retinal or choroidal tissue.
Intravitreal drug delivery has become a popular method of treatment of many retinal diseases, commonly including AMD, Diabetic Retinopathy, and Retinal Vein Occlusions. The frequency of intravitreal injections has significantly increased since the introduction of Anti-VEGF medications.
An intravitreal implant is a drug delivery system, injected, or surgically implanted in the vitreous of the eye, for sustained release of drug to the posterior eye segment. Intravitreal corticosteroid implants are being investigated for a variety of inflammatory eye conditions”
Laser Eye Surgery
Laser eye surgery may refer to:
- LASIK, in which a knife is used to cut a flap in the cornea, and a laser is used to reshape the layers underneath, to treat refractive error
- IntraLASIK, a variant in which the flap is also cut with a laser Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK, LASEK), in which the cornea is reshaped without first cutting a flap
- Laser thermal keratoplasty, in which a ring of concentric burns is made in the cornea, which cause its surface to steepen, allowing better near vision
- Phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK), in which opacities and surface irregularities are removed from the cornea
- Laser coagulation, in which a laser is used to cauterize blood vessels in the eye, to treat various conditions.
Cataract surgery is the removal of the natural lens of the eye that has developed an opacification, which is referred to as a cataract. Metabolic changes of the crystalline lens fibers over time lead to the development of the cataract and loss of transparency, causing impairment or loss of vision. Generally the natural lens is replaced by an intraocular lens implant, which is a synthetic lens good enough to restore the natural len’s transparency. Recent advances in cataract surgery uses minimal invasive techniques causing no pain to the patients and restoring a useful vision. A cataract surgery has a success rate of more than 90% and very rare chances of complications.
Glaucoma is a group of diseases affecting the optic nerve that results in vision loss and is frequently characterized by raised intraocular pressure (IOP). There are many types of glaucoma surgery, and variations or combinations of those types, that facilitate the escape of excess aqueous humor from the eye to lower intraocular pressure, and a few that lower IOP by decreasing the production of aqueous humor. Laser trabeculoplasty (LTP) is the application of a laser beam to burn areas of the trabecular meshwork, located near the base of the iris, to increase fluid outflow. An iridotomy involves making puncture-like openings through the iris without the removal of iris tissue.An iridectomy, also known as a corectomy or surgical iridectomy, involves the removal of a portion of iris tissue.
Canaloplasty is an advanced, nonpenetrating procedure designed to enhance drainage through the eye’s natural drainage system to provide sustained reduction of IOP. Canaloplasty utilizes microcatheter technology in a simple and minimally invasive procedure.Canaloplasty is a nonpenetrating procedure utilizing microcatheter technology. To perform a canaloplasty, an incision is made into the eye to gain access to Schlemm’s canal in a similar fashion to a viscocanalostomy. A microcatheter will circumnavigate the canal around the iris, enlarging the main drainage channel and its smaller collector channels through the injection of a sterile, gel-like material called viscoelastic. The catheter is then removed and a suture is placed within the canal and tightened. By opening the canal, the pressure inside the eye can then be relieved
Refractive surgery aims to correct errors of refraction in the eye, reducing or eliminating the need for corrective lenses Keratomilleusis is a method of reshaping the cornea surface to change its optical power. A disc of cornea is shaved off, quickly frozen, lathe-ground, then returned to its original power.
- Automated lamellar keratoplasty (ALK)
- Laser assisted in-situ keratomileusis (LASIK)
- Laser assisted sub-epithelial keratomileusis (LASEK), aka Epi-LASIK
- Photorefractive keratectomy
- Laser thermal keratoplasty.
Corneal surgery includes most refractive surgery as well as the following:
- Corneal transplant surgery, is used to remove a cloudy/diseased cornea and replace it with a clear donor cornea.
- Penetrating keratoplasty
- Phototherapeutic keratectomy
Vitreoretinal surgery is the treatment of disorders related to the retina, vitreous and macula. Ophthalmic surgeons use specialized techniques, instruments and solutions to treat conditions that include retinal detachment, macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and uveitis.
- Anterior vitrectomy is the removal of the front portion of vitreous tissue. It is used for preventing or treating vitreous loss during cataract or corneal surgery, or to remove misplaced vitreous in conditions such as aphakia pupillary block glaucoma.
- Pars plana vitrectomy (PPV), or trans pars plana vitrectomy (TPPV), is a procedure to remove vitreous opacities and membranes through a pars plana incision. It is frequently combined with other intraocular procedures for the treatment of giant retinal tears, tractional retinal detachments, and posterior vitreous detachments.
Eye Muscle Surgery
Eye muscle surgery typically corrects strabismus and includes the following:-
- Loosening / weakening procedures
- Recession involves moving the insertion of a muscle posteriorly towards its origin.
Oculoplastic surgery, or oculoplastics, is the subspecialty of ophthalmology that deals with the reconstruction of the eye and associated structures. It includes a wide range of surgical procedures that deal with the orbit, tear ducts, eyelids and the face. Ocuplastic surgery also refers to the reconstructive procedures of the eye and the associated structures. Blepharoplasty or the plastic surgery of the eyelids for cosmetic purposes is one of the most frequently performed cosmetic surgery in India.
The orbit is the boney socket in your skull that contains and houses the eye and all the associated structures that support the function of the eye like muscles, nerves and blood vessels. Orbital decompression for Grave’s Disease. Grave’s Disease is a condition (often associated with over-active thyroid problems) in which the eye muscles swell. Because the eye socket is bone, there is nowhere for the swelling to be accommodated and as a result the eye is pushed forward into a protruded position. In some patients this is very pronounced. Orbitial decompression involves removing some bone from the eye socket to open up one or more sinuses and so make space for the swollen tissue and allowing the eye to move back into normal position.
LASIK (Laser-Assisted in situ Keratomileusis), commonly referred to as laser eye surgery, is a type of refractive surgery for the correction of myopia, hypermetropia, and astigmatism. The Lasik procedure works on reshaping the cornea, with the help of a laser, so that the light rays entering through are focussed on the retina to produce a clear image. A LASIK procedure provides an alternative to eyeglasses or contact lenses. Some of the major advantages of a LASIK procedure over other refractive procedures is negligible pain, immediate results, correct vision, no incisions or stiches. A lot of specialised eye centres provide state of the art services for Lasik in India.