Neurosurgery (or neurological surgery) is the medical specialty concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of disorders which affect any portion of the nervous system including the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and extra-cranial cerebrovascular system .Neuroradiology methods are used in modern neurosurgical diagnosis and treatment, including computer assisted imaging computed tomography (CT),magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), magnetoencephalography (MEG), and the stereotactic surgery. Some neurosurgical procedures involve the use of MRI and functional MRI intraoperatively.
A brain tumor, or tumour, is an intracranial solid neoplasm, a tumor (defined as an abnormal growth of cells) within the brain or the central spinal canal. Usually the cell in our body die with time and are replaced by new cells, but in tumors this process is disrupted and an abnormal and uncontrolled cell growth occurs. These cells get accumulated into the mass of tissue and is called a tumor. 50% to 60% of the primary brain tumors are Gliomas, and second most commom type of tumors are meningeal tumors. Any kind of brain tumor is is very serious and life threatning indeed, an ealry treatment is highly advisable.
A stroke, sometimes referred to by the older term cerebrovascular accident (CVA), is the rapid loss of brain function due to disturbance in the blood supply to the brain. This can be due to ischemia (lack of blood flow) caused by blockage (thrombosis, arterial embolism), or a hemorrhage. Stroke is one of the major cause of serious disability in adults and accounts for the most number of deaths only after cardiovscular diseases and cancer.Some of the symtoms of stroke are sudden difficulty in speech, vision or recognition, numbness, severe headache or dizziness.
Epilepsy is a common and diverse set of chronic neurological disorders characterized by seizures. Some definitions of epilepsy require that seizures be recurrent and unprovoked, but others require only a single seizure combined with brain alterations which increase the chance of future seizures. Epilepsy is characterised by recurrent seizures due to an abnormal brain funtion. A person suffering from the disorder exhibits strange emotions and behavior, depression, loss of conciousness and sometimes convulsions. Epilepsy has nothing to do with the mental acumen or retardness, a person with epilepsy can exhibit a more than average intelligence.
A headache or cephalalgia is pain anywhere in the region of the head or neck. It can be a symptom of a number of different conditions of the head and neck. The brain tissue itself is not sensitive to pain because it lacks pain receptors. According to a report around 45% of all the adults report having suffered a severe headache at some point of time in life. Headaches can be migraines (generally occuring on half of the face) or clusters headaches that are spread over a location and behind the eye or muscle contraction headaches.
Multiple sclerosis (MS), also known as disseminated sclerosis or encephalomyelitis disseminata, is an inflammatory disease in which the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord are damaged. Its a condition that destroys the myelin( the membranes that surrounds the nerve axons so as to enable them to conduct electrical action potentials effectively) in the central nervous system. Some of the common symptoms of Multiple Scelerosis are visual loss, sensory loss, pyramidal weakness, brainstem dysfunction and tremors. Although Multiple Scelerosis is not a fatal disease but it still causes a lot of trouble and eventually shortens the life span because of the related complications.
An aneurysm or aneurism is a localized, blood-filled balloon-like bulge in the wall of a blood vessel. Aneurysms can commonly occur in arteries at the base of the brain (the circle of Willis) and an aortic aneurysm occurs in the main artery carrying blood from the left ventricle of the heart. Aneurysm can occur due to increased blood pressure and can cause a sroke on bursting. Some of the symptoms of aneurysm are pain in the back, pain or lump in the abdomen and headache.
Cervical/Lumbar Spinal Stenosis
Spinal stenosis is an abnormal narrowing (stenosis) of the spinal canal that may occur in any of the regions of the spine. This narrowing causes a restriction to the spinal canal, resulting in a neurological deficit. Symptoms include pain, numbness, paraesthesia, and loss of motor control.
Cervical/Lumbar Disc Herniation
A Spinal disc herniation (prolapsus disci intervertebralis) is a medical condition affecting the spine in which a tear in the outer, fibrous ring (annulus fibrosus) of an intervertebral disc (discus intervertebralis) allows the soft, central portion (nucleus pulposus) to bulge out beyond the damaged outer rings.
Parkinson’s disease (PD also known as idiopathic or primary parkinsonism, hypokinetic rigid syndrome/HRS, or paralysis agitans) is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system. There are generally two variations of Parkinson’s Disease, first a tremor-dominant one with a comparatively early onset age and slower progression and second a postural instability and gait difficulty(PIGD) form with a later onset age and more rapid progression. Some of the common symptoms along with difficulty in walking are disturbance in salvation, sweating, bowel and bladder functions.
Spinal Cord Injury
A spinal cord injury (SCI) refers to any injury to the spinal cord that is caused by trauma instead of disease. Depending on where the spinal cord and nerve roots are damaged, the symptoms can vary widely, from pain to paralysis to incontinence. A spinal injury could be caused by vehicle accidents, falls from heights, sports injuries etc. Spinal injuries may cause a disc bulge or disc protrusion.
Scoliosis is a medical condition in which a person’s spine is curved from side to side. Although it is a complex three-dimensional deformity, on an X-ray, viewed from the rear, the spine of an individual with scoliosis may look more like an “S” or a “C”, rather than a straight line. Scolliosis can be present right from birth, called congenital scolliosis or occurs just before puberty. Most scolliosis could be cured by a brace but for severe scolliosis a spinal fusion can be performed.