Gynecology is the study of the disorders of the female reproductive system i.e. the uterus, vagina and the ovaries. A gynecologist is a specialist who deals with the disorders of the women. A gynecologist is generally also an obstetrician who looks after the issues related to child birth and pregnancy. Some of the common diseases of the female reproductive system are ovarian cysts and cancers, urinary incontinence or loss of bladder control, infertility, painful menstrual periods, infections of the cervix and vagina etc. Some of the most important surgical procedures under gynecology are :-
Removal of Uterus
A hysterectomy is major operation to remove a woman’s uterus. It is carried out to treat various problems associated with periods, pelvic pain, tumours and other related conditions. A hysterectomy could be partial or full, depending upon whether only uterus has been removed, or other reproductive organs like the cervix, fallopian tubes and ovaries are also removed along with the uterus. A hysterectomy can be combined with a oophorectomy, which is the removal of the ovaries in order to rule out the risks of ovarian cancer. The removal of the uterus is the last resort to some of the diseases like ovarian, uterine or cervical cancer, uterine fibroids, severe endometriosis etc.
An ovarian cyst is any collection of fluid, surrounded by a very thin wall, within an ovary. Any ovarian follicle that is larger than about two centimeters is termed an ovarian cyst. Cysts have been classified as into different forms, the most common being the functional cysts. Ovarian cysts don’t cause any symptoms until they grow significant in size. Specific symptoms include abdominal pain, urinary symptoms, change in bowel habits etc. Some other types of cysts include polycystic ovaries, endometriomas, cystadenomas and dermoid cysts.
Tubal ligation or tubectomy (also known as having one’s “tubes tied” (ligation)) is a surgical procedure for sterilization in which a woman’s fallopian tubes are clamped and blocked, or severed and sealed, either method of which prevents eggs from reaching the uterus for fertilization. Tubal ligation is considered a permanent method of sterilization and birth control. Tubal implants such as metal springs can also be placed in the fallopian tube, and with time permanently blocks the tubes. The main goal of either tubal ligation or tubal implants is to stop the eggs from travelling from the ovaries into tha fallopian tubes, where the ovarian egg is fertilized by a male sperm.
Laparoscopy for Infertility
Laparoscopy is an operation performed in the abdomen or pelvis through small incisions (usually 0.5–1.5 cm) with the aid of a camera. It can either be used to inspect and diagnose a condition or to perform surgery. It provides a view of the pelvic anatomy as well as allows the surgeon to perform a variety of surgical operations with less morbidity than laparotomy. The advantages of laparoscopy are low cost, convenience and comparatively shorter stay and has made outpatient sterilization available to women throughout the world.
Female Urinary Incontinence
Urinary incontinence (UI), involuntary urination, or enuresis is any involuntary leakage of urine. It can be a common and distressing problem, which may have a profound impact on quality of life. A urinary incontinence can result from a lot of diseases of ovarian tumors and cancers. Urinary incontinence could be due stress, where the female leaks when she coughs, sneezes or exercises or it could be an urge incontinence where the women feels an urgent need to pass urine and is incontinent before she makes it to the toilet.
Polypectomy is indicated for the treatment of cervical polyps and of pedunculated endometrial polyps that present through the cervix. Cervical polyps are red colored finger shaped growth in the passage between the uterus and the vagina. Cervial polyps are know to cause a lot of disorders in females like excessive bleeding and pain after sexual intercourse, during and in between menstrual periods etc. Usually cervical polyps don’t have any specific symptoms, but if they grow large in size or bleed a lot, it becomes unavoidable to get them removed via a polypectomy surgery.
Hysteroscopic myomectomy is a procedure that is employed for the removal of uterine fibroids. In this procedure, a hysteroscope is inserted into the uterus via the vagina and cervix. Fibroids are generally non cancerous growths that develop in or outside the uterus. When the muscle cells in the uterus start growing abnormally, they form a benign tumor. Uterine fibroids are very common in women and almost all the women suffer from some kind of uterine fibroids at some time in life. The uterine fibroids are known to depend upon the female hormone called the estrogen and decrease with falling estrogen levels.
Hysteroscopic Endometrial biopsy
An endometrial biopsy is a way for your doctor to take a small sample of the lining of the uterus. The sample is looked at under a microscope for abnormal cells. An endometrial biopsy helps your doctor find problems in the endometrium. It also lets your doctor check to see if your body’s hormone levels that affect the endometrium are in balance. Some of the conditions that may warrant a need of an endometrial biopsy are excessive vaginal bleeding, suspected urinary cancer, female infertility and polycystic ovary syndrome.
Hysteroscopic Tubal Cannulation
Tubal cannulation or Falloposcopy is the inspection of the fallopian tubes through a micro- endoscope. It’s done to clear a blockage in the fallopian tube, one of the most common cause of female infertility. The falloposcope is inserted into the tube through its opening in the uterus at the proximal tubal opening via the utero-tubal junction. Any blocked area in the fallopian tube is opened by a balloon on the catherer.